Exosomes isolated from two different cell lines using three different isolation techniques show variation in physical and molecular characteristics

Exosom is an extracellular vesicel bi-lipid nanoscopic lipid with the potential to be used as a targeted therapy. In our investigation, we compare three main exosome insulation techniques which are total exosome insulation reagents (TEIs), protein precipitation of organic solvents (PROSPR) and differential ultracentrification (UC) based on biophysical and physicochemical characteristics of exosoms isolated from Colo 205 and MCF-7 Media is conditioned by cancer cells with the aim of choosing the appropriate method for translational studies. Analysis of 3D images and the distribution of the size of the exosomal particle of the image of their hrtem describes morphological differences.

Molecular and analytic characterization of exosomes uses Western Blotting, Raman and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis in spectral data obtained, assessed for better molecular specifications and particle purity. The Exocomic Insulated TEI Method with higher exosomal results, purity, and recovery that directly translates into targeted drugs and therapies while Ultracentrifuge has good particle morphological recovery but shows a smaller average size particle aggregation. ProSPI technique isolates the EVS mixture, indicating lower protein recovery in pages and western bloting but higher spectroscopic proteins on lipid ratios and EV populations that can be distinguished in multivariate analysis compared to exosoms isolated by ex. This comparative study must help in choosing the specific exosomatic insulation techniques needed for downstream application purposes.

 

Exosom in cardiovascular disease

Ecosomes are bioveicles of nano-sized nano origin physiologically released by almost all types of cells into surrounding body fluids. They carry protein cargo, lipids, and special genetics of cells and can be selectively taken by neighboring cells or far away. Because the intrinsic nature of the exosomes is greatly influenced by the state of the cells of parents and by the cellular micro environment, the origin and content analysis of the exosomes, and the specificity of their cell targeting, making it interesting as a possible diagnostic biomarker and prognostic. While the possibility of the exosom role as a messenger and regenerative tool in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is actively investigated, evidence of its usefulness as biomarkers is still limited and incomplete.

Further complications are caused by the lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate approach to ecosome isolation and characterization, both important problems for effective clinical translations. As a consequence, in this review, we will discuss some information that is currently accessible to the diagnostic / prognostic potential of the exosomes in the CVD and on the methodology available for ecosome isolation, analysis, and characterization. Exosom is an important group of extracellular vesicles. They are formed in the endosomal compartment and actively secreted in extracellular space. Some membrane proteins, including Integrin, are present on the surface of the exosom.

Because integrin exosomes are competent to bind the ligand, they can play an important role in directing the exosom network distribution. Integrin exosomal trade directed at Vivo is involved in regulating renovation of cell homing niches for cancer metastasis and migration lymphocytes. This chapter explains the methods used to study integrin functions in exosom including: isolation and characterization of exosomal biophysome, binding exosomal integrin-ligands, and in the competitive excosom homing test of Vivo.

 Exosomes isolated from two different cell lines using three different isolation techniques show variation in physical and molecular characteristics
Exosomes isolated from two different cell lines using three different isolation techniques show variation in physical and molecular characteristics

Optical, electrochemical and electrical (Nano) biosensors for the detection of exosomes: a complete overview.

The exosomes are small extracellular vesicles involved in many physiological activities of cells in the human body. The exosoms of cancer cells have great application potential in clinical diagnosis, anticipated cancer detection and target identification for molecular therapy. Although this area is gaining increased interests of the academy and industry, barriers such as superse sensing techniques and highly efficient isolation methods remain. In clinical settings, there is an urgent need for rapid analysis, reliable detection and point of care test (POCT). With these challenges, this article aims to examine recent developments and technical advances, including optical, electrochemical and electrical biosensors for the detection of exosomes in the field of cancer and other diseases and demonstrate how nanobiosensters could improve

The performance of conventional sensors. Work strategies, the limit of detections, benefits and gaps of studies are summarized. The new trends, challenges and future prospects of the exosomatic OPP in liquid biopsy were discussed. Adipocytes associated with cancer have functional roles in the development of the tumor thanks to factors and exosomes derived from secreted adipocytes as well as by metabolic symbiosis, where malignant cells take lactate, fatty acids and glutamine produced by the neighboring adipocytes. Recent research has demonstrated the value of adipocytes as cell-based distribution platforms for drugs (or prodrugs), nucleic acids or nanoparticles loaded for cancer therapy.

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This strategy benefits from the biocompatibility of the delivery system, its ability to locate the site of the tumor and the predisposition of cancer cells to come into functional contact with adipocytes of tumor microenvironment for metabolic subsistence. In addition, their exosomal content can be used in the context of the reprogramming of cancer stem cells or as a delivery vehicle for different businesses, such as non-coding nucleic acids.